tCO2e = tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent

This is a common measure of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) which standardises methane and nitrous oxide in to units equivalent to carbon dioxide

Carbon neutral

This term describes a product, service, or set of operations with no net carbon footprint, which is accomplished either by eliminating emissions or by offsetting them through carbon removal practices (i.e. planting trees)

Carbon intensity factor

GHG emissions per certain metric (employees, product, revenue, kg, etc.)

Cradle to grave

Removals and emissions of a studied product from material acquisition through to end-of-life.

Material acquisition and pre-processing

Starts when resources are extracted from nature and ends when they enter the production facility.


Starts when the product components enter the production site and ends when the finished product leaves the production gate.

Distribution and storage

Starts when the finished product leaves the gate of the production facility and ends when the consumer takes possession of the product.


Begins when the consumer takes possession of the product and ends when the product is discarded for transport to a waste treatment location.


Begins when the used product is discarded by the consumer and ends when the product is returned to nature (e.g., incinerated) or allocated to another product’s life cycle (e.g., recycled).

Electricity losses

Transmission and distribution (T&D) losses associated with electricity consumption from the grid.

Ecoinvent database

The ecoinvent database provides well documented process data for thousands of products, helping make truly informed choices about their environmental impact. The latest version, ecoinvent 3.7.1, builds on all previous versions of the database.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol Product Life Cycle Accounting and Reporting Standard

This standard provides requirements and guidance for companies and other organisations to quantify and publicly report an inventory of GHG emissions and removals associated with a specific product. The primary goal of this standard is to provide a general framework for companies to make informed choices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the products (goods or services) they design, manufacture, sell, purchase, or use. In the context of this standard, public reporting refers to product GHG-related information reported publicly in accordance with the requirements specified in the standard. (


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